The
lectures are presented as follows.
In the
first part the experimental basis of modern cosmology is presented.
Several decades ago the cosmology has only one basic experimental fact
which form the experimental basis.
It was the expansion of our Universe. The main parameters of expansion
were determined with huge uncertainty. For example, the Hubble parameter
(H) which the main parameter determined the rate of expansion was measured
as 50 < H < 150 (km/sec/Mpc). Only the last several years astronomers
and cosmologists have instrument to measure this parameter with sufficient
accuracy. The time begun when the 3K blackbody radiation was discovered.
Several years later cosmologists developed the theory of light elements
production during the high temperature stage of the Universe evolution.
The conclusions of these calculations were cofirmed by observations. Later
the theory of Large Scale Structure of our Universe was developed by Ya.B.Zeldovich
and his collaborators. Next very important step in the Universe investigation
was done by the observation of the anisotropy of the CMBR (3K blackbody
radiation). The gravitational lenses though are not the subject of cosmological
investigation can be considered as osmological objects. The last years
the investigation of SuperNovae Ia stars reveale the accelarated expansion
of our Universe. This very important fact of
the present day investigation is discussed in separate part of lectures.
The second
part.
The correct cosmological model can be developed after the creation of
the gravitational theory apllicapable to the strong gravitational field
and to the large scales. This theory which is named now the General Relativity
was created by Albert Einstein in 1916. The main ideas and differences
of the relativistic theory of gravity are discussed in the second part
of these lectures.
The third
part of the lectures devoted to the analysis of the Friedmannien equations.
The equations describe the evolution of our Universe were derived by Alexandr
Friedmann in 1924. The conclusions of these equation were so unusual that
even Albert Einstein did not belive in. But after the explanation of A.Friedmann
transfered by A.Korotkov, Einstein agreed with the model developed. The
Friedmannien equation predicted the expansion of our Universe. This expansion
was discovered by Edwin Hubble in 1929 and the law of expansion has its
name now.
The fouth
part contains the newtonian description of the cosmological equations
which reveal the physical sense of these equations and help to understand
them. The fourth part contains the newtonian description of the cosmological
equations.
The fifth
part devoted to the determination (in mathematical sense) the observable
quantities in the cosmology. The red shift, Hubble diagramms, distances,
size of horizon are the subject of this part. At the end the solution
of the Olberts paradox in Friedmannien cosmology is discussed.
The sixs
part of the lectures are devoted to discussion of the small scale
irregularities in cosmology and the equations for the evolution of these
perturbations. The gravitational instability of different types of matter
and on the different background is considered. The real matter in the
early Universe is high temperature plasma. One has to consider the influence
of high temperature plasma on the evolution of the irregularities during
the expansion. The Silk effect (radiation drag) is one of the main effect
which is considered here. The concept of dark matter is one of the most
important concept in the astronomy as a whole. This concept is very important
in cosmology.
The role of dark matter in the evolution of the small scale irregularities
and different types of dark matter is discussed in this part of lectures.
The seventh
part of the lectures is devoted to the nonlinear regime of evolution
of density perturbations. The main feature of this stage is formation
of the 2D structures which were named pankecks. Now is known as Zeldovich
approximation. This type of structure was discovered and called now the
Large Scale Structure of the Universe.
