PART 8: Gravitational lenses

 

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Though the gravitational lenses are not the object for cosmology, they are very close to cosmological investigation. To determine the distance to a lens one has to use cosmological distances. The gravitational lens testes play very importrant role in the cosmological investigations. Moreover gravitational lenses were the Rujero de Ritis favorite topic of investigation during the last years.
Its are why I add the section devoted to gravitational lens investigation to this coource of lectures. In this part the effect of gravitational lens is discussed including the pedagogical simple case up to the real cases.
Several examples of extragalactic gravitational lenses are discussed in this part.